New Labour and Fascism, #5/5

What, then, to make of all of this?

I don’t really know.

Obviously Mr Blair isn’t a fascist, or an apologist for fascism, and the Labour Party isn’t a fascist formation. (If it were, I wouldn’t be a member.) But demi-semi fascist phrasemaking does fall easily, far too easily, from Mr Blair’s lips, and it’s doubly depressing that it seems to be on those occasions when he goes out of his way to talk about his most deeply-held political convictions that he sounds most like the heir to the ideological apologists for the Vichy regime.

In the most sensible thing ever written about the third way (Mr Blair’s that is, not Mussolini’s), Steven Lukes — commenting on the second most sensible thing ever written about the third way, Stuart White’s instant-classic paper, “Interpreting the “Third Way”: Not One Way But Many”  — had this to say:

“I suggest that the very point of the rhetoric of the Third Way is to fudge such distinctions [between left and right, communitarianism and liberalism, elitism and democracy], thereby enabling the political leaders who foster it to pursue their project while enlarging their constituency among the ideologically inclined. So the Third Way can unite Anthony Giddens (for whom it signifies the renewal of social democracy) with John Gray (for whom social democracy belonged within a historical niche that is gone beyond hope of memory); high-minded pieties about family values and British pride with talk of flexible self-invention in a postmodern world; and media manipulation and Leninist party control with constitutional decentralization and support for citizens’ juries.”(Lukes, Liberals and Cannibals, Verson 2003, p.173, based on remarks given at a conference at Harvard’s Center for European Studies, November 1998.)

That’s always seemed to me to be about right.But I’d add just this one observation, that while we’re familiar with the ways in whicih third way rhetoric has been terribly useful for the government as it seeks to cover its left flank while shifting Labour politics to the centre and then to the right, we should pay more attention than we do both to the ideological ancestry of this kind of political language, and to the extent to which this way of talking can be used, and has been used, as political camouflage for an odious accommodation not merely with Mr Blair’s celebrated “forces of conservatism”, but also with the politics of the far, far right.

UPDATE [1.4.05]: Consider Phlebas has more.

New Labour and Fascism, #4/5

So, as I say, by the Spring and Summer of 1999 I was getting interested in the idea that there might be interesting and somewhat robust connections between the left-wing ideological apology for Pétainism and Mr Blair’s third way. But what happened in 2001 took me quite by surprise.

On the same day as the elections in which the Italian post-fascist Alleanza Nazionale swept back into office on the back of Silvio Berlusconi’s victory in the Italian general election, Tony Blair visited his constituency in Sedgefield, County Durham, in order to receive the nomination of the local Labour Party as its candidate in the forthcoming General Election. His acceptance speech was presented to the media as the Prime Minister’s “first keynote speech” of the general election campaign, and it was one in which he described the major outlines of his political creed and tried to articulate (again!) the big ideas that animated his political activity, and it turned out that the core values of the Labour Party were virtually indistinguishable from those of Marshal Pétain’s.

If you remember, the Vichy regime replaced the revolutionary republican slogan “liberté, egalité, fraternité” with an alternative triad, “travail, famille, patrie“. And, as you probably don’t remember, because it wasn’t given quite as much media coverage as it ought to have had (just a snippet in the Guardian Diary), Mr Blair in that speech said this, that “Here in Sedgefield in 1983, in a supposedly traditional Labour constituency, I learnt, thankfully, that others felt exactly the same, who believed in the values of hard work, family, patriotism, equality of opportunity, and who felt they were the real values underpinning the real purpose of the Labour Party, if only we could rediscover that purpose.”

Earlier in the speech, he had claimed that around this time, in the early 1980s, he stopped allowing what he had read or what he had learnt to guide his politics, and that he “started to think about it on the basis of what I felt”. Well, equality of opportunity aside — and that appeal is used in New Labour discourse as much to legitimise present or future inequalities as it is to challenge them — what Mr Blair felt, and what he felt his constituents felt, was best articulated in terms of a Vichyite slogan, with the same concepts being deployed in the same order.

New Labour and Fascism, #3/5

What if, despite the rhetoric, the relevant ideological ancestors for what passes for Mr Blair’s political thought aren’t the fascists themselves, but those who busied themselves making apologies for authoritarian right-wing rule in the fascist era, above all in Occupied France?

This thought first struck me in the Spring of 1999, when reading Alexander De Grand’s biography of Angelo Tasca, In Stalin’s Shadow (Northern Illinois University Press, 1986). As I wrote somewhere else back in June 1999:

Tasca (1892-1960) is best known for his activities in the Italian Communist Party in the 1920s, where he was one of the leading opponents of Antonio Gramsci in the debates over party organisation and strategy. Having been expelled from the Communist Party in 1929, he wound up in France, where he made the significant error of choosing to collaborate with the Vichy regime, for which he occupied an important post in the Ministry of Information. According to Alexander De Grand’s political biography (… p.161), Tasca introduced the idea of the Third Way in courses he gave at Vichy training academies. The key text was a set of lectures on ‘Le rôle de l’état‘ delivered in April 1943; it remains unpublished, in the Tasca archives at the Fondazione Giangiacomo Feltrinelli in Milan, but De Grand usefully highlights some of the key themes in Tasca’s political thinking during this period.In particular, Tasca called for a reconceptualisation of the idea of rights, as he sought a new understanding of rights that would be distinct from both a liberal treatment of rights as inviolable possessions and the totalitarian ambition to have the scope and content of all rights dictated by the state. Tasca also broke decisively with the socialism he had hitherto espoused. He rejected, for example, the natural equality of citizens, and went as far as to insist that there was no “problem of the �lites” and that “the masses” were a “negative factor in the Revolution”…. Tasca further argued that the middle class was the sole active historical force; he emphasised themes of social stability and inter-class harmony; and he thought that those who sought change should work for a moral transformation of the already existing political class, rather than seek to transform the social or economic structure of France.

I still think that this isn’t a bad presentation of the ideological core of Blair’s politics, c.1996-8 or so. Like Angelo Tasca, Tony Blair then concentrated his political-theoretical attention on the idea of “rights”, empahsising his “social” understanding of rights which balanced them with “responsibilities”. Tasca’s rejection of socialism and a politics of class conflict and his celebration of the middle classes sits comfortably alongside the broader contours of New Labour politics. And, finally, with respect to the moral transformation of the political class, it’s worth remembering the politics of moral renewal associated with New Labour in this period, after the Major years of brown envelopes and endemic Tory sleaze.

UPDATE [4.30pm]: Jamie has more.

New Labour and Fascism, #2/5

A handful of rightists have been keen to emphasise the political parallels between today’s centre-left and yesteryear’s fascist right on the one hand, and today’s post-fascist right on the other. An example of each:

1. Michael Diboll wrote an article for the Spectator (27.11.1999, “Unite against the Centre”) which discussed New Labour in light of Oswald Mosley’s programme for Britain. He pointed in particular to the Government’s belief in a strong executive led by a handful of powerful ministers grouped around the Leader, to the marginalisation of both the Cabinet and the Parliament, the increased authority of technocrats, and to the legitimation of government decisions through the use of periodic referenda (the referendum being, in Clement Attlee’s famous phrase, a device “for demagogues and dictators”).

2. And on 22 February 2000 a mischievous Jörg Haider published an article in the Daily Telegraph — widely reported around the world — which drew attention to the substantial overlap between his own governing philosophy and that of Mr Blair. Both New Labour and the FPÖ, he wrote, had leaders who “have reformed their parties and have freed them from the old ideological ballast”, who are searching “for a new sense of community in the globalised world of today” and whose government promised equality of opportunity, low taxation, a tough law and order policy, welfare state reform and a “community-oriented politics”. Both countries’ governments wanted strict control over their own national borders, and on this issue Haider noted that, “If Blair is not extreme, then nor is Haider”, for “the latter is arguably less tough on asylum seekers and immigrants than Labour and Blair!”

Neither the Spectator nor Mr Haider are necessarily reliable guides in these matters, however. (An anonymous Downing Street spokesperson called the comparison between Mr Blair and Mr Haider “risible”.) So what else, if anything, might there be to say?

New Labour and Fascism, #1/5

Geoffrey Wheatcroft has an interesting op-ed in the Guardian today, describing some of the ways in which the rhetoric of leading politicians frequently includes characteristic fascist tropes, and he provides plenty of examples to illustrate his claims. (Harry’s not happy, and says so here.)

The suggestion that Tony Blair’s New Labour has something in common with interwar fascism is, of course, not new. The label that Mr Blair chose to describe his own politics, that of the Third Way, itself invites the comparison, owing to its popularity among mid-century fascists who saw their political creed as one which rejected the extremes of state socialism on the one hand and liberal economics on the other. One contemporary academic analyst of fascism, Roger Eatwell, for example, puts the search for a “holistic national radical Third Way” right at the heart of his extensive and authoritative examination of fascist ideology [Fascism: A History, p.11].

(A digression: Michael Mann’s new book, Fascists, one of many I’m half-way through at the moment, is superb. At least, the first few chapters are. I don’t yet know about the rest.)

Another old fascist slogan, “Neither Left Nor Right But Forward!”, has also become something of a staple among partisans of contemporary Anglophone centre-left politics. Blair guru Anthony Giddens published a book called Beyond Left and Right back in 1994, and the Labour Party is going to the country about now with the remarkably vacuous slogan, “Forwards, Not Back”. My favourite example of this kind of language, however, comes not from a Blairista but from a “New Democrat”: the New York Times reported in December 1998 that Al Gore had told a Democratic audience that, “Six years ago, we moved politics forward, beyond right and left. Today let us move politics not only farther forward, but also upward, to a higher place, to a place far beyond the false divisions and dichotomies of the past.”

OK: so some of the slogans are the same. (We knew that.) What else?

Good Piece

I thought David Clark’s article in the Guardian about the Prime Minister the other day got things about right. So go and read it, if you haven’t already.

One reason I liked it, of course, is that it’s a recognisable version of Ross McKibbin’s approach to thinking about Mr Blair, from which I’ve approvingly quoted before. Here he is again, writing in the LRB in 2003:

This is a government by no means without achievement, but it has even so been a disappointment: a disappointment in relation to what we had a right to expect and in relation to its own extraordinary electoral strength. Its ambitions are narrowed to those which can be achieved with the least controversy and offend the fewest powerful interests. Blair, we are told, is an admirer of the Asquith Government, but I wonder how much he knows of it. This, after all, was a government which was prepared to take on the House of Lords, the Tory Party, a good part of the ruling class, the rich, even the monarchy, and was dependent on the fruitful relationship between a Prime Minister who in the end sided with the Left and a Chancellor (Lloyd George) who enjoyed offending almost everybody. To read the Liberal Party’s rhetoric during the 1910 elections is to realise that we live in a different world. It is inconceivable that Blair or Brown would behave that way.

(Dead Men Left has more.)

Elections in Zimbabwe

These are taking place shortly. I haven’t really been paying attention this time around, but last time around, we managed to publish a string of articles on the 2002 Presidential elections over at the Voice of the Turtle by our various Zim correspondents, Leo Zeilig, E. Lovemore Moyo (here and here), Patrick Bond and Raj Patel, and a chap who went by the odd name “Zim Admin” for safety’s sake (here and here).

For blogstuff on this lot of elections, there’s Zimbabwean Norm here and here.

UPDATE [31.3.05]: Class Worrier Raj has a bit more.

The People’s Car

Here’s a transcription of the English-language display that accompanies the exhibit of Colonel Gaddafi’s Volkswagen Beetle in the Tripoli Museum:

Vehicle, Volkswagen
Property of 2nd Lt- Moammar Ghedaffi
Veh. Reg. No. 23398 LB
Date 6/4/1967This vehicle has been part in serious events astonishing surprised travelled thousands of kilometers crossed valleys plains villages cities rural zones lanes and avenues. All over the country during ember years which Moammar Ghedaffi lived underground in a journey of 4000 days of clandestine activities.

This vehicle has carried manuscripts, secrets and men.

It was kept under closed watch, controlled observation, hot pursuits and investigations by oppressive military and security services of the defunct regime.

More than one warrant and more than an enquiry have been launched about it in several regions from Benghazi to Brega from Abugrem to Sirta, Tripoli, Sebha, Deran Zarwia and Beida.

This vehicla suffered failures, collision courses, incidents, halted journeys in difficult circumstances and hard times full of dangers that waylay it.

In more than once, carrying instigating circulars, such as the circular distributed by the Leader himself in Tripoli streets on behalf of workers calling the masses to rebel and revenge. At other time, transporting organisational and ideological pamphlets to build and inspire the free Unionist Officers.

It was embodied the simplicity in confronting the Mercedes-Benz car which has incarnated clamor haughtiness and false arrogance.

There were great differences between both cars, while the Volkswagen was rolling up time and distances to bring closer the salvation day, the Mercedes was moving between right club, gambling halls and military bases by agents of the Italians, Americans and British in the defunct regime. All paid from the Libyan people’s wealth. The people were suffering from poverty, oppression, sleeping on the ground, and protecting themselves from heat and cold by zinc panels under yoke of an agent regime that had lost sovereignty, will and legitimacy. Whereas it infiltrated to the country from abroad in the darkness under the cover of charlatanism, heresy and perversion under the protection of colonization.

This car as simple, normal and popular as it is shall be one of the flagrant public eye witnesses about the journey of four thousand plays clandestine action.

Glory to the Revolutionary Moammar Gheddafi, Leader of the Great El Fateh of the 1st September 1969.

Department the Morale Guidance.

Couldn’t have put it better myself.